Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy

S. W. Chu, I. H. Chen, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, S. P. Lee, B. L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, M. X. Kuo, D. J. Lin, H. L. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Citations (Scopus)


Highly optically active nonlinear bio-photonic crystalline and semicrystalline structures in living cells were studied by a novel multimodal nonlinear microscopy. Numerous biological structures, including stacked membranes and aligned protein structures are highly organized on a nanoscale and have been found to exhibit strong optical activities through second-harmonic generation (SHG) interactions, behaving similarly to man-made nonlinear photonic crystals. The microscopic technology used in this study is based on a combination of different imaging modes including SHG, third-harmonic generation, and multiphoton-induced fluorescence. With no energy release during harmonic generation processes, the nonlinear-photonic-crystal-like SHG activity is useful for investigating the dynamics of structure-function relationships at subcellular levels and is ideal for studying living cells, as minimal or no preparation is required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-200
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Microscopy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Dec


  • Cr: forsterite laser
  • Multiphoton process
  • Nonlinear microscopy
  • Photonic crystal
  • Second-harmonic generation
  • Third harmonic generation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology


Dive into the research topics of 'Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this