Neurofeedback Training Reduces Frontal Midline Theta and Improves Putting Performance in Expert Golfers

Shih Chun Kao, Chung Ju Huang, Tsung Min Hung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


A single-subject design was used to examine the influence of one session of neurofeedback training (NFT) on reducing frontal midline theta (Fmθ) amplitude and enhancing golf putting performance. Posttraining, three highly skilled golfers improved in putting score or score stability. Although the Fmθ amplitude during the pre-putt period inconsistently decreased across participants, all golfers exhibited lower Fmθ amplitude during the resting condition following NFT, suggesting that the tonic reduction of Fmθ may play a role in subsequent performance improvement. Overall, these results indicate that a short session of NFT may be an effective method of performance enhancement in some sports.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-286
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Applied Sport Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jul


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

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