Neurofeedback training: Decreases in Mu rhythm lead to improved motor performance in complex visuomotor skills

Kuo Pin Wang, Cornelia Frank, Tsung Min Hung*, Thomas Schack*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The physiological function of the Mu rhythm (8–13 Hz in the central region) is still unclear, particularly its role in visuomotor performance in sports (shooting vs. golf putting), as both the complexity of the motor skills (i.e., simple vs. complex visuomotor skills) and the skill level (e.g., novices vs. experts or low-skilled vs. highly skilled) may modulate Mu rhythm. To gain a broader understanding of the association between Mu rhythm and visuomotor skill performance, a study design that considers both a control moderator (the difference in skill level) and the ability to manipulate Mu rhythm (i.e., either increase or decrease Mu rhythm) is required. To achieve this, we recruited 30 novice golfers who were randomly assigned to either the increased Mu rhythm group (IMG), decreased Mu rhythm group (DMG), or sham group (SG) and used electroencephalographic-neurofeedback training (EEG-NFT) to manipulate Mu rhythm during a golf putting task (complex visuomotor skill). The aim was to determine whether the complexity of the motor skill was a potential moderator of Mu rhythm. We mainly found that Mu power was significantly decreased in the DMG following EEG-NFT, which lead to increased motor control and improved performance. We suggest that (1) the complexity of the motor skill, rather than the difference in skill level, may be a potential moderator of Mu rhythm and visuomotor performance, as our results were not consistent with a previous study that reported that increased Mu rhythm improved shooting performance (a simple visuomotor task) in novices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20860-20871
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent Psychology
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Aug


  • Complex motor skills
  • Golf
  • Implicit motor learning
  • Shooting
  • Simple motor skills

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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