Multidimensional affective morality scale: Development and reliability and validity evaluation

Angela Chi Ming Lee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study developed the Multidimensional affective morality (MAM) scale by testing its reliabilities and validity. On the basis of both national and global academic experiences and research achievements, this study selected students from junior high school to graduate school in Taiwan as subjects to construct a concrete indicator for affective morality and enhance the theory and practice of moral education. This study first explored the rationale underlying the scale’s draft. The researcher then examined the content validity and conducted the pretest and formal survey. Statistical analysis was performed utilizing the IBM SPSS Statistics (version 23) and AMOS Graphics (version 25). In Stage 1, an item analysis was performed and the internal reliability was computed for the pretest group sample (N = 585). Stage 2 comprised an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for pretest_1 group (N = 283). Stage 3 comprised a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for pretest_2 group (N = 302). In Stage 4, the cross-validation for the formal survey_ group was assessed (N = 708). The researcher developed two versions of the MAM scale. The long version, comprising 4 moral stories, 4 constructs, and 44 items, passed the test for content validity and internal consistency. The short version, comprising 3 moral stories, 3 constructs, and 12 items, demonstrated goodness of fit (a one-factor second-order CFA model) and good composite/component/construct reliability, construct validity, and cross-validity. The long version of the MAM scale demonstrated contextualization and richness, whereas the short one demonstrated structure and refinement. Thus, the MAM scale has the following characteristics: (1) The MAM scale has good richness and offered an in-depth understanding of the multiple dimensions of affective morality. (2) Similar to other related scales, the MAM scale demonstrated the concepts of affective morality. In addition, the scale encompassed localization and creativity pertaining to moral issues. (3) The MAM scale’s reliability and validity could be tested using various evaluation methods. Finally, the researcher offered several suggestions for the scale’s application and further research to improve the development of affective morality among students in different educational levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)561-583
Number of pages23
JournalBulletin of Educational Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)
  • Cross-validation
  • Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)
  • Multidimensional affective morality (MAM) scale
  • Reliability and validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Multidimensional affective morality scale: Development and reliability and validity evaluation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this