Molecular iodine-mediated cascade reaction of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde and indole: An easy access to tetracyclic indoloazulene derivatives

Sachin D. Gawande, Veerababurao Kavala, Manoj R. Zanwar, Chun Wei Kuo, Hsiu Ni Huang, Chiu Hui He, Ting Shen Kuo, Ching-Fa Yao

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15 Citations (Scopus)


The synthesis of iodo-substituted tetracyclic indole fused azulene derivatives was achieved from the reaction of 2-(substituted phenylethynyl)-benzaldehydes and different indoles in the presence of molecular iodine. The reaction involves the formation of a bisindole from the corresponding 2-(substituted phenylethynyl)benzaldehyde and indole followed by iodocyclization in a one-pot cascade process. A wide range of 2-(substituted phenylethynyl)-benzaldehydes and indoles were utilized in this protocol to derive a diverse range of iodo-substituted tetracyclic indole fused azulene derivatives in moderate to good yields. Further functionalizations of the iodo-substituted tetracyclic indole fused azulenes were achieved by various palladium-catalyzed crosscoupling reactions to generate highly substituted tetracyclic indole fused azulene derivatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3022-3036
Number of pages15
JournalAdvanced Synthesis and Catalysis
Issue number14-15
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan 1



  • Azulenes
  • Cascade process
  • Cross-coupling
  • Indoles
  • Indoloazulenes
  • Iodocyclization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry

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