The objective of this study was to research and develop a braking system for electric vehicles by using modeling and experiment methods as well as to assess the performance of this system. First, vehicle dynamic information was employed to develop components for various braking systems. Subsequently, the components were used to develop active brake and passive brake models, and regenerative energy was optimized using rule-based control. Finally, the regenerative efficiency was analyzed. Regarding passive brakes, mechanical braking was adopted to stop vehicles, and the shortages of braking force were compensated using regenerative braking. Conversely, concerning active brakes, regenerative braking was employed to stop vehicles, and the shortages of braking force were compensated using mechanical braking. Physical models developed in this study included high-power motors, high-power lithium batteries, mechanical braking models, and regenerative braking models. To prevent exceedingly high power during the regeneration process from reducing battery life, a regenerative power protection mechanism was created using the iteration method. The global search method was adopted to identify the optimal regenerative braking power. Brake data measurements made using the chassis dynamometer and simulation comparisons showed that the deviation between the actual and simulation braking energy was merely 1.14%, indicating that the physical model developed in this study can represent actual braking systems. To assess the energy recovery efficiency of active regenerative braking, two types of driving cycle, namely the Economic Commission of Europe (ECE) and the federal test procedure (FTP) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, were used in simulations in this study. For the FTP-type driving cycle, the energy recovery efficiency were 24.05% and 3.489% for active and passive brakes, respectively. For the ECE-type driving cycles, the energy recovery efficiency were 32.92% and 2.786% for active and passive brakes, respectively. These results revealed that the active brake designed in this study features benefits such as optimal energy recovery and can extend the travel distance of electric vehicles.