MM-wave integration and combinations

Huei Wang, Jeng-Han Tsai, Kun You Lin, Zuo Min Tsai, Tian Wei Huang

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Millimeter wave frequency band (30300 GHz) radios are creating a strong demand for highly integrated transceiver monolithic microwave/ millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs). Power amplifiers (PAs) are an important block in the wireless transceiver. PA designs often involve tradeoffs between available power gain, output power (Pout), power added efficiency (PAE), and linearity. Traditionally, millimeter-wave PAs were mostly implemented in compound semiconductor technologies such as GaAs and InP HEMT technologies due to their high electron mobility, high breakdown voltage, and the availability of high-quality-factor (Q) passives. On the other hand, SiGe BiCMOS technology has shown potential for medium output power at millimeter-wave frequencies. Modern nanometer CMOS technology with continuous downscaling of transistor dimensions and improvement of the maximum frequency of oscillation, fmax, has become a realistic alternative for millimeter-wave applications. Recently, CMOS MMIC components such as voltage control oscillators (VCOs), low noise amplifiers (LNAs), and mixers have been demonstrated successfully with good performance at millimeterwave frequencies above 100 GHz [1][3]. Due to the advantages of small size, low cost, low power consumption, and high level of integration with the back end, millimeterwave system-on-chip (SoC) technologies using nanometer CMOS processes have the opportunity to meet millimeter-wave system requirements; however, the CMOS PA is still a bottleneck for millimeter-wave system integration. Since Si has a lower mobility and smaller band-gap than III-V compound semiconductor materials, Si metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) field-effect transistors (FETs) have a lower cut-off frequency and breakdown voltage than compound semiconductor transistors such as GaAs-based metal-semiconductor FETs (MESFETs), HEMTs, and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The downscaling of transistor dimensions, resulting in a low transistor breakdown voltage in nanometer CMOS is a disadvantage in millimeter-wave PA design. In addition, high Si substrate loss in commercial CMOS technologies is not conducive for power and efficiency of the PAs. Therefore, more circuit design effort has to be devoted to millimeter-wave PAs using nanometer CMOS technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages49-57
Number of pages9
Volume13
No.5
Specialist publicationIEEE Microwave Magazine
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul 30

Fingerprint

Millimeter waves
millimeter waves
power amplifiers
Power amplifiers
CMOS
Wave power
Transistors
transistors
Electric breakdown
electrical faults
amplifier design
transmitter receivers
High electron mobility transistors
Semiconductor materials
high electron mobility transistors
Transceivers
integrated circuits
Integrated circuits
field effect transistors
Microwaves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Wang, H., Tsai, J-H., Lin, K. Y., Tsai, Z. M., & Huang, T. W. (2012). MM-wave integration and combinations. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 13(5), 49-57. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMM.2012.2197143

MM-wave integration and combinations. / Wang, Huei; Tsai, Jeng-Han; Lin, Kun You; Tsai, Zuo Min; Huang, Tian Wei.

In: IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 5, 30.07.2012, p. 49-57.

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationArticle

Wang, H, Tsai, J-H, Lin, KY, Tsai, ZM & Huang, TW 2012, 'MM-wave integration and combinations' IEEE Microwave Magazine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 49-57. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMM.2012.2197143
Wang, Huei ; Tsai, Jeng-Han ; Lin, Kun You ; Tsai, Zuo Min ; Huang, Tian Wei. / MM-wave integration and combinations. In: IEEE Microwave Magazine. 2012 ; Vol. 13, No. 5. pp. 49-57.
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