Middle school students' flipped learning readiness in foreign language classrooms: Exploring its relationship with personal characteristics and individual circumstances

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30 Citations (Scopus)


This study surveyed 387 middle school 7th - graders' flipped learning readiness in their English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classrooms and explored the effects of personal characteristics on their readiness levels. These personal characteristics included gender, the availability of outside-school support and resources, foreign language beliefs, perceptions of their English teachers, and how they use the Internet. Through factor analysis, flipped learning readiness consists of five dimensions: learner control and self-directed learning, technology self-efficacy, motivation for learning, in-class communication self-efficacy, and doing previews. It was found that personal characteristics and individual circumstances, including language beliefs, student perceptions of teacher characteristics, the availability of outside-school support and resources, learning performance, study time and net-surfing time, can make a difference to the levels of the readiness dimensions. These findings may shed light on the middle schoolers' flipped learning readiness in EFL classrooms and provide insights for teachers wanting to incorporate individualized instruction in the flipped classroom.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-303
Number of pages9
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jun 1



  • Flipped learning readiness
  • Foreign language classrooms
  • Individual differences
  • Middle school
  • Technology integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Psychology(all)

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