Metadiffuser fabricated by DUV KrF 248nm photolithography for wavefront manipulation

Hsuehli Liu*, Chunyen Chou, Linchia Huang, Wilson Guo, Peichen Yu, Chunghsuan Huang, Chaujern Cheng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


This work presents a disordered metadiffuser that can achieve a uniform angular scattering distribution with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.85 at a working wavelength of λ=532 nm, as demonstrated through simulations using the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. Additionally, we demonstrate the capability of the metadiffuser to achieve near diffraction-limit high NA focusing (NA>0.8) through the use of a spatial light modulator and the optical phase conjugation method for wavefront shaping. Finally, we propose a deep ultraviolet (DUV) model-based optical proximity correction (OPC) system that uses optical and photoresist simulations via Hopkins’s partially coherent image formation and fully convolutional networks (FCN). This system enables larger-area device fabrication with DUV lithography while maintaining precise critical dimension (CD) of meta atoms. The proposed OPC system achieves a lithography accuracy with an average ∆CD/CD of 0.235%. These results offer promising implications for the practical application of metadiffusers and the DUV lithography technique in the field of optical devices.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMetamaterials, Metadevices, and Metasystems 2023
EditorsNader Engheta, Mikhail A. Noginov, Nikolay I. Zheludev, Nikolay I. Zheludev
ISBN (Electronic)9781510665064
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes
EventMetamaterials, Metadevices, and Metasystems 2023 - San Diego, United States
Duration: 2023 Aug 202023 Aug 23

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceMetamaterials, Metadevices, and Metasystems 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego


  • Critical dimension (CD)
  • DUV photolithography
  • Fully convolutional network (FCN)
  • Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm
  • Optical phase conjugation
  • Optical proximity correction (OPC)
  • Wavefront shaping
  • lithographic model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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