Metacognition in covariation reasoning relevant to performance achievement mediated by experiential values in a simulation game

Jon Chao Hong, Ming Yueh Hwang, Ming Chou Liu, Chi Ruei Tsai, Kai Hsin Tai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The Chinese proverb “heal a headache by curing the head and heal foot pain by curing the feet” alludes to ineffective work resulting from a lack of covariation in reasoning. Actually, much problem solving relies on the analysis of how two or more factors vary in correlation with another related variant (i.e., covariation reasoning). To further investigate covariation reasoning and its related affective factors, we designed a website called “No Good (NG) Bread” for senior vocational high school students in Taipei who had taken baking courses for 1 year to apply their knowledge in solving baking-related problems. Data collected from 113 participants aged 16 to 17 were validated by confirmatory factor analysis using Visual PLS 1.04 to examine the interrelatedness among metacognition, experiential values, and performance achievement. The examination revealed that metacognition was positively related to hedonic and utilitarian experiential values, which were subsequently positively related to the students’ learning achievements. The results imply that websites can be developed for specialized courses, such as nursing or automobile repair, to develop students’ covariation reasoning for more effective problem solving.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEducational Technology Research and Development
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019 Jan 1



  • Experiential value
  • Human–computer interface
  • Improving classroom teaching
  • Interactive learning environments
  • Metacognition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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