Low-Carbon Travel Motivation and Constraint: Scales Development and Validation

You Yu Dai, An Jin Shie*, Jin Hua Chu, Yen Chun Jim Wu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Low-carbon travel has emerged as a topic of interest in tourism and academia. Studies have offered reasons tourists may engage in low-carbon travel; however, these explanations are scattered throughout the literature and have yet to be integrated into low-carbon travel motivation and constraint constructs. This study develops a low-carbon travel motivation scale (LCTMS) and a low-carbon travel constraint scale (LCTCS). It performs reliability and validity testing to measure the low-carbon travel motives and obstacles. Items were collected primarily by literature review, and, then, by surveys of 382 tourists from low-carbon travel destinations and 390 from non-low-carbon travel destinations. Through a rigorous scale development process, this study identifies six dimensions of the LCTMS (environmental protection, experience-seeking, escape or social connection, industry pleas and measures for environmental protection, low-carbon products, and green transportation) and four dimensions of the LCTCS (intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints, structural constraints, and the not a travel option).

Original languageEnglish
Article number5123
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May 1


  • independent tourist
  • low-carbon travel behavior
  • low-carbon travel constraint
  • low-carbon travel motivation
  • scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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