Liquid crystal photonics with indium tin oxide nanowhiskers and graphene as functional electrodes

Chan Shan Yang, Ru Pin Pan, Ci Ling Pan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


We have constructed and characterized THz phase shifters based on liquid crystals (LCs) with graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers (ITO NWhs) as transparent conducting electrodes. A graphene-based phase shifter can achieve a phase shift of π/2 at 1.0 THz with the operating voltage of ∼2.2 V (rms) as opposed to ∼ 5.6 V (rms) for ITO-NWhs-based phase shifter in previous work. On the other hand, 2π phase shift at 1.0 THz was achieved in an ITO-NWhs-based phase shifter with a multi-sandwiched structure by applying ∼2.6 V (rms). The low operation voltage of both two kinds of phase shifters imply compatibility of both type of devices with thin-film transistor (TFT) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. The experimental results of phase shifters are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEmerging Liquid Crystal Technologies X
EditorsHirotsugu Kikuchi, Ivan I. Smalyukh, Liang-Chy Chien, Harry J. Coles
ISBN (Electronic)9781628414745
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes
EventEmerging Liquid Crystal Technologies X - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 2015 Feb 92015 Feb 11

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceEmerging Liquid Crystal Technologies X
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Far infrared or terahertz
  • Liquid-crystal devices
  • Phase shift
  • Spectroscopy
  • Terahertz
  • Transparent conductive coatings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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