Leveling up: Are non-gamers and women disadvantaged in a virtual world classroom?

Clyde A. Warden, James O. Stanworth, Chi Cheng Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Today's young gamers are tomorrow's students who expect more immersion from their online learning experiences. Teachers and administrators, however, must ask are some students at a disadvantage in such a class and does gender play a role? We examine the degree to which gaming experience and gender influence sense of presence in a virtual world learning classroom. Feelings of presence are key to involvement in virtual worlds. Participants, 348 undergraduates, interacted within a custom designed virtual world classroom focusing business negotiation skills. Results reveal that while gaming experience gives a slight advantage, lack of previous software ownership and gender do not put learners at a disadvantage. This finding shows that non-gamers and females can equally participate in a virtual world classroom, relieving concerns of adoption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210-219
Number of pages10
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Dec 1


  • Gaming experience
  • Gender
  • Online education
  • Open wonderland
  • Virtual worlds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • General Psychology


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