Leisure constraints: A replication and extension of construct development

Barbara A. Hawkins*, Joanne Peng, Chih Mou Hsieh, Susan J. Eklund

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Citations (Scopus)


This research replicates and extends previous work on leisure-constraints construct development by applying constraints data from a sample of adults with mental retardation. Factor analysis extends definitions for three constraint categories (intrapersonal, interpersonal, structural), confirming the nonhomogeneous nature of leisure constraints. Interpersonal constraints, for example, may have multiple meanings depending upon where one is situated along the continuum from dependence to interdependence to independence. Model testing fails to replicate the hypothesized hierarchy among the three constraint categories. Intrapersonal constraints may not be salient reasons for nonparticipation in leisure interests, whereas structural and interpersonal constraints appear to be in need of negotiation. The findings support the need to refine the propositions associated with the proposed hierarchical model of leisure constraints.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-192
Number of pages14
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Sept 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Adults
  • Factor Structure
  • Hierarchical Model Testing
  • Leisure Constraints
  • Mental Retardation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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