Learning English with Augmented Reality: Do learning styles matter?

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201 Citations (Scopus)


This study attempted to develop and compare two Augmented Reality (AR) educational game systems for third graders to learn English vocabulary in free and situated surroundings. One system was developed based on a self-directed learning approach which did not restrict the learning sequence, while the other was based on a task-based learning approach which limited the learning sequence. The flow experience, cognitive load, foreign language learning anxiety, and learning effectiveness of the students with different learning styles (i.e., serial or global) were assessed. The results showed that the students using the self-directed or task-based AR educational game system had similar and high learning effectiveness, although those using the self-directed system revealed higher flow experience. However, the students with a serial learning style had lower mental effort and foreign language learning anxiety regardless of using the self-directed or the task-based AR educational game system. It was found that the challenge and control of the system conformed to the students' proficiency. The learning objects (e.g., pen, pencil, book, chair, desk, eraser, ruler, etc.) did not have a restrictive learning sequence. Providing free learning steps was preferable, and restricting which step to begin with was not necessary. This study confirms that the mental efforts of students are greater when they experience more learning anxiety at the same time; however, it is not the case that lower learning anxiety and mental effort is better for learning. On the contrary, a little learning anxiety and mental effort, but not too much, is helpful for learning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-149
Number of pages13
JournalComputers and Education
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Mar 1


  • Elementary education
  • Evaluation of CAL systems
  • Interactive learning environments
  • Media in education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Education


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