The use of smart devices as media for digital learning constitutes a new-generation digital learning paradigm. Therefore, context-aware game-based learning has attracted considerable attention. Location-based games have not only positive effects on learning but also pronounced effects on culture and history. Accordingly, focusing on railway cultural heritages, we attempted to assess interdependent relationships between key factors crucial for the design of a location-based mobile game for cultural heritages. We adopted the analytic network process (ANP) for our assessment. We initially performed a literature review to generalize relevant criteria and elements and developed a questionnaire based on the fuzzy delphi method (FDM); which lead to the selection of key factors, namely 3 criteria and 15 elements. We also applied an online ANP-based questionnaire; on the basis of the experts' opinions, we established a network model and determined the priority order of the key factors. The results revealed that experts considered “culture learning” to be of the highest importance, with the most important three elements being “prior knowledge,” “challenge levels,” and “cultural narrative.” Moreover, culture learning exhibited a strong interaction with content design. In addition, each element had a considerable influence on the remaining elements that could provide references for the construction of location-based cultural mobile games in the future.
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