Jia Fei Hong*, Shih Hsuan Hsiao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In the nineteenth century, British scholar, Herbert Spencer, mentioned in his 1857 work, What Knowledge is Worth Most? that curricular activities must be beneficial to the development of society, with “the application of knowledge” and “how to achieve self-preservation” as the standards of judgment. In order of importance, knowledge of worth should constitute “those activities which directly minister to self-preservation,” “those activities which, by securing the necessaries of life, indirectly minister to self-preservation,” “those activities which have for their end the rearing and discipline of offspring,” “those activities which are involved in the maintenance of proper social and political relations,” and “those miscellaneous activities which fill up the leisure part of life, devoted to the gratification of the tastes and feelings.” To sum up Spencer’s claim, all learning activities of worth must be related to “science.”

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationChinese Language Learning Sciences
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Publication series

NameChinese Language Learning Sciences
VolumePart F1831
ISSN (Print)2520-1719
ISSN (Electronic)2520-1727

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Computer Science Applications


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