Digital holographic microtomography is a promising technique for three-dimensional (3D) measurement of the refractive index (RI) profiles of biological specimens. Measurement of the RI distribution of a free-floating single living cell with an isotropic superresolution had not previously been accomplished. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on the development of an integrated dual-tomographic (IDT) imaging system for RI measurement of an unlabelled free-floating single living cell with an isotropic superresolution by combining the spatial frequencies of full-angle specimen rotation with those of beam rotation. A novel 'UFO' (unidentified flying object) like shaped coherent transfer function is obtained. The IDT imaging system does not require any complex image-processing algorithm for 3D reconstruction. The working principle was successfully demonstrated and a 3D RI profile of a single living cell, Candida rugosa, was obtained with an isotropic superresolution. This technology is expected to set a benchmark for free-floating single live sample measurements without labeling or any special sample preparations for the experiments.
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