In 3 experiments, the authors examined movement space—time variability as a function of the force-time properties of the initial impulse in a movement timing task. In the range of motion and movement time task conditions, peak force, initial rate of force, and force duration were manipulated either independently or in combination across a range of parameter values. The findings showed that (a) impulse variability is predicted well by the elaboration of the isometric force variability scaling functions of L. G Carlton, K. H. Kim, Y. T. Liu, and K. M. Newell (1993) to movement, and (b) the movement spatial and temporal outcome variability are complementary and well predicted by an equation treating the variance of force and time in Newton's 2nd law as independent random variables. Collectively, the findings suggest that movement outcome variability is the product of a coherent space—time function that is driven by the nonlinear scaling of the force—time properties of the initial impulse.
- Movement speed-accuracy
- Spatial—temporal error
- Timing task
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Cognitive Neuroscience