Impacts of Different Smartphone Caption/Subtitle Mechanisms on English Listening Performance and Perceptions of Students with Different Learning Styles

Gwo Jen Hwang, Ting Chia Hsu, Yi Hsuan Hsieh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, 3 Mobile-Assisted Language Learning interfaces are proposed considering the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Cognitive Load Theory, and the Active/Reflective learning styles. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to compare the effects of 3 smartphone interfaces, namely partial English captions (EG1), full English captions (EG2), and partial English captions with Chinese subtitles (CG), on the cognitive load, learning motivation, and learning anxiety and enjoyment of 119 11th-grade students with different learning styles. It was found that EG2 had significantly higher learning motivation than EG1 and CG. On the other hand, significant interaction between the 3 smartphone interfaces and learning styles was found for the students’ cognitive loads. Further analysis showed that, in EG1, the active-style students’ cognitive load was significantly lower than that of the reflective-style students. In addition, it was found that the active-style students’ learning enjoyment was significantly higher than that of the reflective-style students, while no significant difference was found between the learning anxiety ratings of the students with different learning styles in the 3 groups. Therefore, it is suggested that the role of learning styles needs to be further considered when designing caption interfaces for smartphone applications in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-344
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
Issue number4-5
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar 16


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications

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