Immature Biology of Neptis hesione podarces (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Taiwan, with Discussion on Its Frass Chain Function

Chia Lung Huang, Yu-Feng Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Neptis hesione podarces Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a rare nymphalid butterfly in Taiwan. Bionomics and immature morphology of this rare species are given in detail in the present article. Its larvae are monophagous, consuming leaves of a climbing fig Ficus sarmantosa (Moraceae). Seven instars are required to complete larval development. We found that younger larvae of N. h. podarces make frass chains, a behavior that has not been found in other Neptis species. Here we test the antipredator function of this larval behavior and provide details on nest building.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)357-365
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of the Entomological Society of America
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1



  • Ficus sarmantosa
  • Host plant
  • Moraceae
  • frass chain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

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