## Abstract

We consider the H-theorem in an isolated quantum harmonic oscillator through the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The effect of potential in producing entropy is investigated in detail, and we found that including a barrier potential into a harmonic trap would lead to the thermalization of the system, while a harmonic trap alone would not thermalize the system. During thermalization, Shannon entropy increases, which shows that a microscopic quantum system still obeys the macroscopic thermodynamics law. Meanwhile, initial coherent mechanical energy transforms to incoherent thermal energy during thermalization, which exhibiting the decoherence of an oscillating wave packet featured by a large decreasing of autocorrelation length. When reaching thermal equilibrium, the wave packet comes to a halt, with the density distributions both in position and momentum spaces well-fitted by a microcanonical ensemble of statistical mechanics.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 1163 |

Journal | Entropy |

Volume | 24 |

Issue number | 8 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2022 Aug |

## Keywords

- H-theorem
- Shannon entropy
- barrier potential
- decoherence
- quantum harmonic oscillator
- thermalization

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Information Systems
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- General Physics and Astronomy
- Mathematical Physics
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)