Ground reaction force characteristics of Tai Chi push hand

Yao Ting Chang, Jia Hao Chang, Chen Fu Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Push Hand is an advanced training technique for the Yang-style old frame 108 forms Tai Chi Chuan. It is performed by two practitioners. To clarify how people use forces during Push Hand training, it is important to review the ground reaction force (GRF). Here, we quantify the characteristics of the GRF during Push Hand training. Kinematic data and GRF data from 10 Tai Chi Chuan practitioners (29.9 ± 7.87 years) were synchronously recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (200 frames · s(-1)) and three-dimensional force plates (1000 Hz). The resultant GRF for both feet for the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were compared to body weight using a paired-samples t-test. The differences in the resultant GRF between the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were tested by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The significance level was set to 0.05. The total resultant GRF was almost equal to the participant's body weight in push hand. This result was consistent throughout the entire push hand process. Our results revealed that the GRF was comparable to the body weight, implying that practitioners do not push or resist their opponents during the push hand process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1698-1703
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Tai Chi
  • bow-arrow stance
  • kinematic
  • martial art
  • ward off

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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