# Green function, Painlevé VI equation, and Eisenstein series of weight one

Zhijie Chen, Ting Jung Kuo, Chang Shou Lin, Chin Lung Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

### Abstract

The behavior and the location of singular points of a solution to Painlevé VI equation could encode important geometric properties. For example, Hitchin's formula indicates that singular points of algebraic solutions are exactly the zeros of Eisenstein series of weight one. In this paper, we study the problem: How many singular points of a solution λ(t) to the Painlevé VI equation with parameter ( 1/8 , -1/8 , 1/8 , 3/8 ) might have in C\{0, 1}? Here t0 ∈ C\{0, 1} is called a singular point of λ(t) if λ(t0) ∈ {0, 1, t0,∞}. Based on Hitchin's formula, we explore the connection of this problem with Green function and the Eisenstein series of weight one. Among other things, we prove: (i) There are only three solutions which have no singular points in C\{0, 1}. (ii) For a special type of solutions (called real solutions here), any branch of a solution has at most two singular points (in particular, at most one pole) in C \ {0, 1}. (iii) Any Riccati solution has singular points in C\{0, 1}. (iv) For each N ≥ 5 and N = 6, we calculate the number of the real j-values of zeros of the Eisenstein series EN1 (τ ; k1, k2) of weight one, where (k1, k2) runs over [0,N - 1]2 with gcd(k1, k2,N) = 1. The geometry of the critical points of the Green function on a flat torus Eτ, as τ varies in the moduli M1, plays a fundamental role in our analysis of the Painlevé VI equation. In particular, the conjectures raised in  on the shape of the domain Ω5 ⊂ M1, which consists of tori whose Green function has extra pair of critical points, are completely solved here.

Original language English 185-241 57 Journal of Differential Geometry 108 2 Published - 2018 Feb

### Fingerprint

Eisenstein Series
Singular Point
Green's function
Critical point
Torus
Three Solutions
Zero
Thing
Pole
Modulus
Branch
Vary
Calculate

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

• Analysis
• Algebra and Number Theory
• Geometry and Topology

### Cite this

Green function, Painlevé VI equation, and Eisenstein series of weight one. / Chen, Zhijie; Kuo, Ting Jung; Lin, Chang Shou; Wang, Chin Lung.

In: Journal of Differential Geometry, Vol. 108, No. 2, 02.2018, p. 185-241.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, Zhijie ; Kuo, Ting Jung ; Lin, Chang Shou ; Wang, Chin Lung. / Green function, Painlevé VI equation, and Eisenstein series of weight one. In: Journal of Differential Geometry. 2018 ; Vol. 108, No. 2. pp. 185-241.
title = "Green function, Painlev{\'e} VI equation, and Eisenstein series of weight one",
abstract = "The behavior and the location of singular points of a solution to Painlev{\'e} VI equation could encode important geometric properties. For example, Hitchin's formula indicates that singular points of algebraic solutions are exactly the zeros of Eisenstein series of weight one. In this paper, we study the problem: How many singular points of a solution λ(t) to the Painlev{\'e} VI equation with parameter ( 1/8 , -1/8 , 1/8 , 3/8 ) might have in C\{0, 1}? Here t0 ∈ C\{0, 1} is called a singular point of λ(t) if λ(t0) ∈ {0, 1, t0,∞}. Based on Hitchin's formula, we explore the connection of this problem with Green function and the Eisenstein series of weight one. Among other things, we prove: (i) There are only three solutions which have no singular points in C\{0, 1}. (ii) For a special type of solutions (called real solutions here), any branch of a solution has at most two singular points (in particular, at most one pole) in C \ {0, 1}. (iii) Any Riccati solution has singular points in C\{0, 1}. (iv) For each N ≥ 5 and N = 6, we calculate the number of the real j-values of zeros of the Eisenstein series EN1 (τ ; k1, k2) of weight one, where (k1, k2) runs over [0,N - 1]2 with gcd(k1, k2,N) = 1. The geometry of the critical points of the Green function on a flat torus Eτ, as τ varies in the moduli M1, plays a fundamental role in our analysis of the Painlev{\'e} VI equation. In particular, the conjectures raised in  on the shape of the domain Ω5 ⊂ M1, which consists of tori whose Green function has extra pair of critical points, are completely solved here.",
author = "Zhijie Chen and Kuo, {Ting Jung} and Lin, {Chang Shou} and Wang, {Chin Lung}",
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N2 - The behavior and the location of singular points of a solution to Painlevé VI equation could encode important geometric properties. For example, Hitchin's formula indicates that singular points of algebraic solutions are exactly the zeros of Eisenstein series of weight one. In this paper, we study the problem: How many singular points of a solution λ(t) to the Painlevé VI equation with parameter ( 1/8 , -1/8 , 1/8 , 3/8 ) might have in C\{0, 1}? Here t0 ∈ C\{0, 1} is called a singular point of λ(t) if λ(t0) ∈ {0, 1, t0,∞}. Based on Hitchin's formula, we explore the connection of this problem with Green function and the Eisenstein series of weight one. Among other things, we prove: (i) There are only three solutions which have no singular points in C\{0, 1}. (ii) For a special type of solutions (called real solutions here), any branch of a solution has at most two singular points (in particular, at most one pole) in C \ {0, 1}. (iii) Any Riccati solution has singular points in C\{0, 1}. (iv) For each N ≥ 5 and N = 6, we calculate the number of the real j-values of zeros of the Eisenstein series EN1 (τ ; k1, k2) of weight one, where (k1, k2) runs over [0,N - 1]2 with gcd(k1, k2,N) = 1. The geometry of the critical points of the Green function on a flat torus Eτ, as τ varies in the moduli M1, plays a fundamental role in our analysis of the Painlevé VI equation. In particular, the conjectures raised in  on the shape of the domain Ω5 ⊂ M1, which consists of tori whose Green function has extra pair of critical points, are completely solved here.

AB - The behavior and the location of singular points of a solution to Painlevé VI equation could encode important geometric properties. For example, Hitchin's formula indicates that singular points of algebraic solutions are exactly the zeros of Eisenstein series of weight one. In this paper, we study the problem: How many singular points of a solution λ(t) to the Painlevé VI equation with parameter ( 1/8 , -1/8 , 1/8 , 3/8 ) might have in C\{0, 1}? Here t0 ∈ C\{0, 1} is called a singular point of λ(t) if λ(t0) ∈ {0, 1, t0,∞}. Based on Hitchin's formula, we explore the connection of this problem with Green function and the Eisenstein series of weight one. Among other things, we prove: (i) There are only three solutions which have no singular points in C\{0, 1}. (ii) For a special type of solutions (called real solutions here), any branch of a solution has at most two singular points (in particular, at most one pole) in C \ {0, 1}. (iii) Any Riccati solution has singular points in C\{0, 1}. (iv) For each N ≥ 5 and N = 6, we calculate the number of the real j-values of zeros of the Eisenstein series EN1 (τ ; k1, k2) of weight one, where (k1, k2) runs over [0,N - 1]2 with gcd(k1, k2,N) = 1. The geometry of the critical points of the Green function on a flat torus Eτ, as τ varies in the moduli M1, plays a fundamental role in our analysis of the Painlevé VI equation. In particular, the conjectures raised in  on the shape of the domain Ω5 ⊂ M1, which consists of tori whose Green function has extra pair of critical points, are completely solved here.

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