### Abstract

The behavior and the location of singular points of a solution to Painlevé VI equation could encode important geometric properties. For example, Hitchin's formula indicates that singular points of algebraic solutions are exactly the zeros of Eisenstein series of weight one. In this paper, we study the problem: How many singular points of a solution λ(t) to the Painlevé VI equation with parameter ( 1/8 , -1/8 , 1/8 , 3/8 ) might have in C\{0, 1}? Here t0 ∈ C\{0, 1} is called a singular point of λ(t) if λ(t0) ∈ {0, 1, t0,∞}. Based on Hitchin's formula, we explore the connection of this problem with Green function and the Eisenstein series of weight one. Among other things, we prove: (i) There are only three solutions which have no singular points in C\{0, 1}. (ii) For a special type of solutions (called real solutions here), any branch of a solution has at most two singular points (in particular, at most one pole) in C \ {0, 1}. (iii) Any Riccati solution has singular points in C\{0, 1}. (iv) For each N ≥ 5 and N = 6, we calculate the number of the real j-values of zeros of the Eisenstein series EN1 (τ ; k1, k2) of weight one, where (k1, k2) runs over [0,N - 1]2 with gcd(k1, k2,N) = 1. The geometry of the critical points of the Green function on a flat torus Eτ, as τ varies in the moduli M1, plays a fundamental role in our analysis of the Painlevé VI equation. In particular, the conjectures raised in [23] on the shape of the domain Ω5 ⊂ M1, which consists of tori whose Green function has extra pair of critical points, are completely solved here.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 185-241 |

Number of pages | 57 |

Journal | Journal of Differential Geometry |

Volume | 108 |

Issue number | 2 |

Publication status | Published - 2018 Feb |

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### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Analysis
- Algebra and Number Theory
- Geometry and Topology

### Cite this

*Journal of Differential Geometry*,

*108*(2), 185-241.

**Green function, Painlevé VI equation, and Eisenstein series of weight one.** / Chen, Zhijie; Kuo, Ting Jung; Lin, Chang Shou; Wang, Chin Lung.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Journal of Differential Geometry*, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 185-241.

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Green function, Painlevé VI equation, and Eisenstein series of weight one

AU - Chen, Zhijie

AU - Kuo, Ting Jung

AU - Lin, Chang Shou

AU - Wang, Chin Lung

PY - 2018/2

Y1 - 2018/2

N2 - The behavior and the location of singular points of a solution to Painlevé VI equation could encode important geometric properties. For example, Hitchin's formula indicates that singular points of algebraic solutions are exactly the zeros of Eisenstein series of weight one. In this paper, we study the problem: How many singular points of a solution λ(t) to the Painlevé VI equation with parameter ( 1/8 , -1/8 , 1/8 , 3/8 ) might have in C\{0, 1}? Here t0 ∈ C\{0, 1} is called a singular point of λ(t) if λ(t0) ∈ {0, 1, t0,∞}. Based on Hitchin's formula, we explore the connection of this problem with Green function and the Eisenstein series of weight one. Among other things, we prove: (i) There are only three solutions which have no singular points in C\{0, 1}. (ii) For a special type of solutions (called real solutions here), any branch of a solution has at most two singular points (in particular, at most one pole) in C \ {0, 1}. (iii) Any Riccati solution has singular points in C\{0, 1}. (iv) For each N ≥ 5 and N = 6, we calculate the number of the real j-values of zeros of the Eisenstein series EN1 (τ ; k1, k2) of weight one, where (k1, k2) runs over [0,N - 1]2 with gcd(k1, k2,N) = 1. The geometry of the critical points of the Green function on a flat torus Eτ, as τ varies in the moduli M1, plays a fundamental role in our analysis of the Painlevé VI equation. In particular, the conjectures raised in [23] on the shape of the domain Ω5 ⊂ M1, which consists of tori whose Green function has extra pair of critical points, are completely solved here.

AB - The behavior and the location of singular points of a solution to Painlevé VI equation could encode important geometric properties. For example, Hitchin's formula indicates that singular points of algebraic solutions are exactly the zeros of Eisenstein series of weight one. In this paper, we study the problem: How many singular points of a solution λ(t) to the Painlevé VI equation with parameter ( 1/8 , -1/8 , 1/8 , 3/8 ) might have in C\{0, 1}? Here t0 ∈ C\{0, 1} is called a singular point of λ(t) if λ(t0) ∈ {0, 1, t0,∞}. Based on Hitchin's formula, we explore the connection of this problem with Green function and the Eisenstein series of weight one. Among other things, we prove: (i) There are only three solutions which have no singular points in C\{0, 1}. (ii) For a special type of solutions (called real solutions here), any branch of a solution has at most two singular points (in particular, at most one pole) in C \ {0, 1}. (iii) Any Riccati solution has singular points in C\{0, 1}. (iv) For each N ≥ 5 and N = 6, we calculate the number of the real j-values of zeros of the Eisenstein series EN1 (τ ; k1, k2) of weight one, where (k1, k2) runs over [0,N - 1]2 with gcd(k1, k2,N) = 1. The geometry of the critical points of the Green function on a flat torus Eτ, as τ varies in the moduli M1, plays a fundamental role in our analysis of the Painlevé VI equation. In particular, the conjectures raised in [23] on the shape of the domain Ω5 ⊂ M1, which consists of tori whose Green function has extra pair of critical points, are completely solved here.

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M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85042052487

VL - 108

SP - 185

EP - 241

JO - Journal of Differential Geometry

JF - Journal of Differential Geometry

SN - 0022-040X

IS - 2

ER -