Giving-up density and dietary shifts in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus

Pei Jen Shaner, Michael Bowers, Stephen Macko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dietary shifts are commonly exhibited by omnivorous consumers when foraging from variable food resources. One advantage of dietary shifts for a consumer is the ability to gain complementary resources from different foods. In addition, dietary shifts often affect food-web dynamics. Despite the importance of dietary shifts to organismal, community, and ecosystem ecology, empirical studies of the ecological mechanisms that control dietary shifts are limited in scope. In this study, we tested the effects of complementary resources on dietary shifts of an omnivorous mammal, the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus, in the context of depletable food patches in the natural environment. We used two complementary resources: seeds that provide a higher energy gain per unit handling time and mealworms that provide a higher protein gain per unit handling time. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C, δ15N) in mouse plasma were used to quantify dietary shifts, and we determined giving-up density (GUD), the food density at which a forager leaves a food patch (for an optimal forager, it should correspond to the quitting harvest rate that balances net fitness gain with various costs of foraging). The results showed that GUD increased most significantly when a mixture of seeds and mealworms was added, compared to when only seeds or mealworms were added. This suggests that, given a similar level of food availability, a patch with a mixture of complementary foods is of higher quality than a patch with only one type of food. Moreover, GUD measured with seeds (GUDs) correlated positively with seed availability, and GUD measured with mealworms (GUDmw) correlated positively with mealworm availability, indicating that the marginal value of seeds or mealworms decreases with their relatively availability in the environment. As GUDs increased, P. leucopus shifted their diets toward higher trophic levels, and as GUDmw increased, P. leucopus shifted their diets toward lower trophic levels, suggesting dietary shifts driven by food complementarity. This study demonstrated that the combination of giving-up density and stable-isotope analysis holds great potential for testing ecological mechanisms underlying dietary shifts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-95
Number of pages9
JournalEcology
Volume88
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jan 1

Fingerprint

dietary shift
Peromyscus leucopus
food
seed
seeds
stable isotopes
handling time
foraging
resource
complementary foods
seed mixtures
trophic level
stable isotope
diet
food availability
food webs
complementarity
mammals
ecology
food web

Keywords

  • Complementary resources
  • Dietary shifts
  • Food availability
  • Food quality
  • Foraging behavior
  • Foraging theory
  • Giving-up density, GUD
  • Oak-hickory forest, Virginia, USA
  • Omnivory
  • Peromyscus leucopus
  • Stable isotopes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Giving-up density and dietary shifts in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. / Shaner, Pei Jen; Bowers, Michael; Macko, Stephen.

In: Ecology, Vol. 88, No. 1, 01.01.2007, p. 87-95.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shaner, Pei Jen ; Bowers, Michael ; Macko, Stephen. / Giving-up density and dietary shifts in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. In: Ecology. 2007 ; Vol. 88, No. 1. pp. 87-95.
@article{5ec6be7b60d5441fa94e81055c751434,
title = "Giving-up density and dietary shifts in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus",
abstract = "Dietary shifts are commonly exhibited by omnivorous consumers when foraging from variable food resources. One advantage of dietary shifts for a consumer is the ability to gain complementary resources from different foods. In addition, dietary shifts often affect food-web dynamics. Despite the importance of dietary shifts to organismal, community, and ecosystem ecology, empirical studies of the ecological mechanisms that control dietary shifts are limited in scope. In this study, we tested the effects of complementary resources on dietary shifts of an omnivorous mammal, the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus, in the context of depletable food patches in the natural environment. We used two complementary resources: seeds that provide a higher energy gain per unit handling time and mealworms that provide a higher protein gain per unit handling time. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C, δ15N) in mouse plasma were used to quantify dietary shifts, and we determined giving-up density (GUD), the food density at which a forager leaves a food patch (for an optimal forager, it should correspond to the quitting harvest rate that balances net fitness gain with various costs of foraging). The results showed that GUD increased most significantly when a mixture of seeds and mealworms was added, compared to when only seeds or mealworms were added. This suggests that, given a similar level of food availability, a patch with a mixture of complementary foods is of higher quality than a patch with only one type of food. Moreover, GUD measured with seeds (GUDs) correlated positively with seed availability, and GUD measured with mealworms (GUDmw) correlated positively with mealworm availability, indicating that the marginal value of seeds or mealworms decreases with their relatively availability in the environment. As GUDs increased, P. leucopus shifted their diets toward higher trophic levels, and as GUDmw increased, P. leucopus shifted their diets toward lower trophic levels, suggesting dietary shifts driven by food complementarity. This study demonstrated that the combination of giving-up density and stable-isotope analysis holds great potential for testing ecological mechanisms underlying dietary shifts.",
keywords = "Complementary resources, Dietary shifts, Food availability, Food quality, Foraging behavior, Foraging theory, Giving-up density, GUD, Oak-hickory forest, Virginia, USA, Omnivory, Peromyscus leucopus, Stable isotopes",
author = "Shaner, {Pei Jen} and Michael Bowers and Stephen Macko",
year = "2007",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[87:GDADSI]2.0.CO;2",
language = "English",
volume = "88",
pages = "87--95",
journal = "Ecology",
issn = "0012-9658",
publisher = "Ecological Society of America",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Giving-up density and dietary shifts in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus

AU - Shaner, Pei Jen

AU - Bowers, Michael

AU - Macko, Stephen

PY - 2007/1/1

Y1 - 2007/1/1

N2 - Dietary shifts are commonly exhibited by omnivorous consumers when foraging from variable food resources. One advantage of dietary shifts for a consumer is the ability to gain complementary resources from different foods. In addition, dietary shifts often affect food-web dynamics. Despite the importance of dietary shifts to organismal, community, and ecosystem ecology, empirical studies of the ecological mechanisms that control dietary shifts are limited in scope. In this study, we tested the effects of complementary resources on dietary shifts of an omnivorous mammal, the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus, in the context of depletable food patches in the natural environment. We used two complementary resources: seeds that provide a higher energy gain per unit handling time and mealworms that provide a higher protein gain per unit handling time. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C, δ15N) in mouse plasma were used to quantify dietary shifts, and we determined giving-up density (GUD), the food density at which a forager leaves a food patch (for an optimal forager, it should correspond to the quitting harvest rate that balances net fitness gain with various costs of foraging). The results showed that GUD increased most significantly when a mixture of seeds and mealworms was added, compared to when only seeds or mealworms were added. This suggests that, given a similar level of food availability, a patch with a mixture of complementary foods is of higher quality than a patch with only one type of food. Moreover, GUD measured with seeds (GUDs) correlated positively with seed availability, and GUD measured with mealworms (GUDmw) correlated positively with mealworm availability, indicating that the marginal value of seeds or mealworms decreases with their relatively availability in the environment. As GUDs increased, P. leucopus shifted their diets toward higher trophic levels, and as GUDmw increased, P. leucopus shifted their diets toward lower trophic levels, suggesting dietary shifts driven by food complementarity. This study demonstrated that the combination of giving-up density and stable-isotope analysis holds great potential for testing ecological mechanisms underlying dietary shifts.

AB - Dietary shifts are commonly exhibited by omnivorous consumers when foraging from variable food resources. One advantage of dietary shifts for a consumer is the ability to gain complementary resources from different foods. In addition, dietary shifts often affect food-web dynamics. Despite the importance of dietary shifts to organismal, community, and ecosystem ecology, empirical studies of the ecological mechanisms that control dietary shifts are limited in scope. In this study, we tested the effects of complementary resources on dietary shifts of an omnivorous mammal, the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus, in the context of depletable food patches in the natural environment. We used two complementary resources: seeds that provide a higher energy gain per unit handling time and mealworms that provide a higher protein gain per unit handling time. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C, δ15N) in mouse plasma were used to quantify dietary shifts, and we determined giving-up density (GUD), the food density at which a forager leaves a food patch (for an optimal forager, it should correspond to the quitting harvest rate that balances net fitness gain with various costs of foraging). The results showed that GUD increased most significantly when a mixture of seeds and mealworms was added, compared to when only seeds or mealworms were added. This suggests that, given a similar level of food availability, a patch with a mixture of complementary foods is of higher quality than a patch with only one type of food. Moreover, GUD measured with seeds (GUDs) correlated positively with seed availability, and GUD measured with mealworms (GUDmw) correlated positively with mealworm availability, indicating that the marginal value of seeds or mealworms decreases with their relatively availability in the environment. As GUDs increased, P. leucopus shifted their diets toward higher trophic levels, and as GUDmw increased, P. leucopus shifted their diets toward lower trophic levels, suggesting dietary shifts driven by food complementarity. This study demonstrated that the combination of giving-up density and stable-isotope analysis holds great potential for testing ecological mechanisms underlying dietary shifts.

KW - Complementary resources

KW - Dietary shifts

KW - Food availability

KW - Food quality

KW - Foraging behavior

KW - Foraging theory

KW - Giving-up density, GUD

KW - Oak-hickory forest, Virginia, USA

KW - Omnivory

KW - Peromyscus leucopus

KW - Stable isotopes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34247093171&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34247093171&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[87:GDADSI]2.0.CO;2

DO - 10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[87:GDADSI]2.0.CO;2

M3 - Article

C2 - 17489457

AN - SCOPUS:34247093171

VL - 88

SP - 87

EP - 95

JO - Ecology

JF - Ecology

SN - 0012-9658

IS - 1

ER -