Gender reality regarding mathematic outcomes of students aged 9 to 15years in Taiwan

Hsin Yi Chen*, Mei Fang Chen, Yuan Shun Lee, Hsin Ping Chen, Timothy Z. Keith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This study uses a comprehensive modeling framework to explore gender similarities and differences in mathematic outcomes of students aged 9 to 15. years. Based on data from 3157 students, we established latent structural equation modeling (SEM) models incorporating 22 latent factors across 3 age levels. Gender had small to moderate effects on math achievement and math-related career intentions. All gender effects were indirectly mediated by intervening factors. Math achievement and career intentions were moderately related, but were influenced by diverse factors. Gender exhibited distinct and salient personality characteristics that were stable with development. Although girls allocated more effort to study and were perceived as receiving more support, boys excelled in many mathematical learning-related domains. Gender differences in mathematics grew stronger as students aged. Finally, gender began to directly affect math self-efficacy between ages 9 and 12. years. These ages could be a critical period for salient increases in gender difference in math.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-63
Number of pages9
JournalLearning and Individual Differences
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Aug


  • Gender reality
  • Latent factor SEM
  • Math achievement
  • Math career intentions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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