Game performance in covariation reasoning: The correlates between gameplay self-efficacy, and metacognition reflected gameplay anxiety and gameplay interest

Jon Chao Hong, Chiung Hua Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


For studying cause-effect relationships, a monoapproach is preferred. However, to account for the complex nature of reality, practicing covariation thinking is necessary. For exploring how cognitive-affective factors play a crucial role in the ability to practice covariation reasoning, this study collected data from senior high school students aged 16-17 years and 138 students were invited to practice that game 20 minutes for 6 times. As part of their studying process, the students were required to complete online questionnaires. The questionnaire related to metacognition and gameplay self-efficacy were delivered before this experiment, questionnaires related to gameplay anxiety and gameplay interest were given after each trial of game playing. Path analysis of data from 119 effective responses was performed using SPSS (version 22) and structural equation modeling-AMOS (version 21). The results demonstrated that gameplay self-efficacy, gameplay interest, and metacognition in learning “NG Bread” was negatively correlated to gameplay anxiety, but gameplay self-efficacy was positively related to gameplay interest. Furthermore, the result indicated that enhancing gameplay self-efficacy in a specific task may reduce players’ anxiety and encourage interest in playing the game in a competitive setting. The implication of this study may encourage educators to use this digital game for improving covariation reasoning of their students.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-162
Number of pages32
JournalJournal of Research in Education Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sep



  • Covariation reasoning
  • Gameplay anxiety
  • Gameplay interest
  • Gameplay self-efficacy
  • Metacognition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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