Extending the technology acceptance model of college learners' mobile-assisted language learning by incorporating psychological constructs

Hui Tzu Hsu*, Chih Cheng Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


Few studies have investigated the extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM) of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) by incorporating psychological influence factors. We aimed to determine the factors affecting the continued adoption of MALL by college-age students of English as a foreign language (EFL). We extended the TAM by adding psychological constructs from action control theory and the concept of intrinsic motivation. Data from a large-scale survey of 557 Taiwanese college EFL students recruited through online convenience sampling were analysed through structural equation modelling. The results revealed that the significant predictors of behavioural intention were its antecedents. Three crucial psychological factors, namely nonpreoccupation, nonhesitation, and nonvolatility, significantly predicted behavioural intention. Perceived ubiquity value, tasks, and mobile self-efficacy were strong predictors of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation significantly predicted behavioural intention through perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Finally, perceived ease of use had a moderate effect on behavioural intention through perceived usefulness. The satisfactory explanatory power of the extended model was indicated by the explained variance (R2) of 80% for behavioural intention. This extended TAM may contribute to the long-term development of MALL. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic Mobile technology has been widely adopted to enhance language learning. However, few studies have investigated individuals' adoption of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL). Factors affecting users' behavioural intention to accept an information system have been researched extensively. The technology acceptance model (TAM) has been extensively used to investigate users' acceptance of different technology in various contexts. What this paper adds This study extended the TAM by incorporating psychological factors to predict the behavioural intention of learners to continue using mobile technology in language learning. The three action-oriented psychological antecedents (nonpreoccupation, nonhesitation, and nonvolatility) used in the model significantly predicted EFL college learners' behavioural intention to continue using mobile devices for language learning. One major factor (intrinsic motivation) significantly affected continued behavioural intention to engage in MALL through perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Implications for practice and/or policy Teachers should incorporate various warm-ups, collaborative activities, and positive feedback from others to MALL tasks to reduce feelings of negativity for state-oriented learners and increase willingness to accept MALL for action-oriented learners. Teachers and developers of MALL systems can promote its acceptance by prioritising usable interfaces and enjoyable, challenging tasks in the design of MALL systems to increase learners' intrinsic motivation and perceptions of usefulness and ease of use. Technical guidance, clear and brief operation orientation sessions, and immediate support should be offered to assist learners in engaging in MALL tasks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-306
Number of pages21
JournalBritish Journal of Educational Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar


  • action control theory
  • intrinsic motivation
  • mobile-assisted language learning
  • structural equation modelling
  • technology acceptance model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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