Evolution of hot fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field inferred from crystal morphology and geochemical vein data

Yi Chia Lu, Sheng Rong Song, Sachihiro Taguchi, Pei Ling Wang, En Chao Yeh, Yu Jie Lin, John MacDonald, Cédric M. John

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The Chingshui geothermal field once hosted the first geothermal power plant in Taiwan from 1981 to 1993. After a long period of inactivity, this field is attracting renewed interest to meet the need for clean energy. A 213-m length of cores (IC-21) with continuous recovery, the longest in the Chingshui geothermal field, was recovered from 600 m to 813 m below the surface in 2010. Three types of calcite crystal morphologies have been identified in the veins of the cores of well IC-21: bladed, rhombic and massive crystals. Bladed calcites are generated via degassing under boiling conditions with a precipitation temperature of ∼165 °C and calculated δ18O value of −6.8‰ to −10.2‰ VSMOW for the thermal water. Rhombic calcites grow in low concentration Ca2+ and CO3 2− meteoric fluids and precipitate at approximately ∼180 °C. Finally, massive calcites are characterized by co-precipitation with quartz in the mixing zone between meteoric water and magmatic or metamorphic fluids with calculated δ18O value of up to 1.5 ± 0.7‰ VSMOW. Furthermore, the scaling and hot fluids at a nearby pilot geothermal power plant confirm a meteoric origin. Based on these observations, we propose that the current orientations of the main conduits for geothermal fluids are oriented at N10°E with a dip of 70°E. This result provides the basic information needed for deploying production and injection wells in future developments of the geothermal power plant in this region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-318
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul


  • Calcite
  • Chingshui geothermal field
  • Clumped isotopes
  • Fluid inclusions
  • Formation scaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geology


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