Evolution of hot fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field inferred from crystal morphology and geochemical vein data

Yi Chia Lu, Sheng Rong Song, Sachihiro Taguchi, Pei Ling Wang, En-Chao Yeh, Yu Jie Lin, John MacDonald, Cédric M. John

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The Chingshui geothermal field once hosted the first geothermal power plant in Taiwan from 1981 to 1993. After a long period of inactivity, this field is attracting renewed interest to meet the need for clean energy. A 213-m length of cores (IC-21) with continuous recovery, the longest in the Chingshui geothermal field, was recovered from 600 m to 813 m below the surface in 2010. Three types of calcite crystal morphologies have been identified in the veins of the cores of well IC-21: bladed, rhombic and massive crystals. Bladed calcites are generated via degassing under boiling conditions with a precipitation temperature of ∼165 °C and calculated δ18O value of −6.8‰ to −10.2‰ VSMOW for the thermal water. Rhombic calcites grow in low concentration Ca2+ and CO3 2− meteoric fluids and precipitate at approximately ∼180 °C. Finally, massive calcites are characterized by co-precipitation with quartz in the mixing zone between meteoric water and magmatic or metamorphic fluids with calculated δ18O value of up to 1.5 ± 0.7‰ VSMOW. Furthermore, the scaling and hot fluids at a nearby pilot geothermal power plant confirm a meteoric origin. Based on these observations, we propose that the current orientations of the main conduits for geothermal fluids are oriented at N10°E with a dip of 70°E. This result provides the basic information needed for deploying production and injection wells in future developments of the geothermal power plant in this region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-318
Number of pages14
JournalGeothermics
Volume74
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul 1

Fingerprint

Geothermal fields
Calcite
Geothermal power plants
geothermal power
calcite
crystal
power plant
Crystals
Fluids
fluid
thermal water
Degassing
Coprecipitation
degassing
meteoric water
Boiling liquids
Precipitates
Water
Quartz
dip

Keywords

  • Calcite
  • Chingshui geothermal field
  • Clumped isotopes
  • Fluid inclusions
  • Formation scaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geology

Cite this

Evolution of hot fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field inferred from crystal morphology and geochemical vein data. / Lu, Yi Chia; Song, Sheng Rong; Taguchi, Sachihiro; Wang, Pei Ling; Yeh, En-Chao; Lin, Yu Jie; MacDonald, John; John, Cédric M.

In: Geothermics, Vol. 74, 01.07.2018, p. 305-318.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lu, Yi Chia ; Song, Sheng Rong ; Taguchi, Sachihiro ; Wang, Pei Ling ; Yeh, En-Chao ; Lin, Yu Jie ; MacDonald, John ; John, Cédric M. / Evolution of hot fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field inferred from crystal morphology and geochemical vein data. In: Geothermics. 2018 ; Vol. 74. pp. 305-318.
@article{fe7a902559784d34b562b80bdebc2e00,
title = "Evolution of hot fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field inferred from crystal morphology and geochemical vein data",
abstract = "The Chingshui geothermal field once hosted the first geothermal power plant in Taiwan from 1981 to 1993. After a long period of inactivity, this field is attracting renewed interest to meet the need for clean energy. A 213-m length of cores (IC-21) with continuous recovery, the longest in the Chingshui geothermal field, was recovered from 600 m to 813 m below the surface in 2010. Three types of calcite crystal morphologies have been identified in the veins of the cores of well IC-21: bladed, rhombic and massive crystals. Bladed calcites are generated via degassing under boiling conditions with a precipitation temperature of ∼165 °C and calculated δ18O value of −6.8‰ to −10.2‰ VSMOW for the thermal water. Rhombic calcites grow in low concentration Ca2+ and CO3 2− meteoric fluids and precipitate at approximately ∼180 °C. Finally, massive calcites are characterized by co-precipitation with quartz in the mixing zone between meteoric water and magmatic or metamorphic fluids with calculated δ18O value of up to 1.5 ± 0.7‰ VSMOW. Furthermore, the scaling and hot fluids at a nearby pilot geothermal power plant confirm a meteoric origin. Based on these observations, we propose that the current orientations of the main conduits for geothermal fluids are oriented at N10°E with a dip of 70°E. This result provides the basic information needed for deploying production and injection wells in future developments of the geothermal power plant in this region.",
keywords = "Calcite, Chingshui geothermal field, Clumped isotopes, Fluid inclusions, Formation scaling",
author = "Lu, {Yi Chia} and Song, {Sheng Rong} and Sachihiro Taguchi and Wang, {Pei Ling} and En-Chao Yeh and Lin, {Yu Jie} and John MacDonald and John, {C{\'e}dric M.}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.geothermics.2017.11.016",
language = "English",
volume = "74",
pages = "305--318",
journal = "Geothermics",
issn = "0375-6505",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evolution of hot fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field inferred from crystal morphology and geochemical vein data

AU - Lu, Yi Chia

AU - Song, Sheng Rong

AU - Taguchi, Sachihiro

AU - Wang, Pei Ling

AU - Yeh, En-Chao

AU - Lin, Yu Jie

AU - MacDonald, John

AU - John, Cédric M.

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - The Chingshui geothermal field once hosted the first geothermal power plant in Taiwan from 1981 to 1993. After a long period of inactivity, this field is attracting renewed interest to meet the need for clean energy. A 213-m length of cores (IC-21) with continuous recovery, the longest in the Chingshui geothermal field, was recovered from 600 m to 813 m below the surface in 2010. Three types of calcite crystal morphologies have been identified in the veins of the cores of well IC-21: bladed, rhombic and massive crystals. Bladed calcites are generated via degassing under boiling conditions with a precipitation temperature of ∼165 °C and calculated δ18O value of −6.8‰ to −10.2‰ VSMOW for the thermal water. Rhombic calcites grow in low concentration Ca2+ and CO3 2− meteoric fluids and precipitate at approximately ∼180 °C. Finally, massive calcites are characterized by co-precipitation with quartz in the mixing zone between meteoric water and magmatic or metamorphic fluids with calculated δ18O value of up to 1.5 ± 0.7‰ VSMOW. Furthermore, the scaling and hot fluids at a nearby pilot geothermal power plant confirm a meteoric origin. Based on these observations, we propose that the current orientations of the main conduits for geothermal fluids are oriented at N10°E with a dip of 70°E. This result provides the basic information needed for deploying production and injection wells in future developments of the geothermal power plant in this region.

AB - The Chingshui geothermal field once hosted the first geothermal power plant in Taiwan from 1981 to 1993. After a long period of inactivity, this field is attracting renewed interest to meet the need for clean energy. A 213-m length of cores (IC-21) with continuous recovery, the longest in the Chingshui geothermal field, was recovered from 600 m to 813 m below the surface in 2010. Three types of calcite crystal morphologies have been identified in the veins of the cores of well IC-21: bladed, rhombic and massive crystals. Bladed calcites are generated via degassing under boiling conditions with a precipitation temperature of ∼165 °C and calculated δ18O value of −6.8‰ to −10.2‰ VSMOW for the thermal water. Rhombic calcites grow in low concentration Ca2+ and CO3 2− meteoric fluids and precipitate at approximately ∼180 °C. Finally, massive calcites are characterized by co-precipitation with quartz in the mixing zone between meteoric water and magmatic or metamorphic fluids with calculated δ18O value of up to 1.5 ± 0.7‰ VSMOW. Furthermore, the scaling and hot fluids at a nearby pilot geothermal power plant confirm a meteoric origin. Based on these observations, we propose that the current orientations of the main conduits for geothermal fluids are oriented at N10°E with a dip of 70°E. This result provides the basic information needed for deploying production and injection wells in future developments of the geothermal power plant in this region.

KW - Calcite

KW - Chingshui geothermal field

KW - Clumped isotopes

KW - Fluid inclusions

KW - Formation scaling

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85041240128&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85041240128&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.geothermics.2017.11.016

DO - 10.1016/j.geothermics.2017.11.016

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85041240128

VL - 74

SP - 305

EP - 318

JO - Geothermics

JF - Geothermics

SN - 0375-6505

ER -