This study discusses the relationship between poverty and vulnerability. It investigates how vulnerability can be integrated into the livelihood framework for poverty alleviation and vulnerability mitigation, as well as the development of adaptive livelihood mechanisms to combat increased risk from natural disasters. Vulnerability is conventionally viewed as risk factors threatening livelihoods; this study provides new insights into vulnerability by viewing vulnerability as endogenous to the development process and embedded in everyday lives and livelihood practices. Poverty and vulnerability reduction are holistically grounded in the coupling of human and environmental systems to facilitate a positive feedback loop between human economic activity and the environment. Social and cultural capitals are highlighted in this study for the significant role they play in inspiring positive change and empowering inner (grass roots) and outer (social welfare institutions) networks as well as social learning to help people to adapt during development.
- human-environment system
ASJC Scopus subject areas