We describe a fundamental study on the plasmonic properties and advanced biosensing mechanisms of functionalized graphene. We discuss a specific design using modified carboxyl groups, which can modulate surface plasmon (SP) coupling and provide an advantage for their binding to the sensing layer with high-performance affinity in an immunological reaction. The functionalized graphene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have three advantages: high performance, high sensitivity, and excellent molecular kinetic response. In the future, functionalized graphene sheets will make a unique contribution to photonic and SPR diagnosis devices. We wish to highlight the essential characteristics of functionalized graphene-based SPR biosensors to assist researchers in developing and advancing suitable biosensors for unique applications.