Energy Valley Optimizer (EVO) for Tracking the Global Maximum Power Point in a Solar PV System under Shading

Md Adil Azad, Injila Sajid, Shiue Der Lu*, Adil Sarwar*, Mohd Tariq, Shafiq Ahmad, Hwa Dong Liu, Chang Hua Lin, Haitham A. Mahmoud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Incorporating bypass diodes within photovoltaic arrays serves to mitigate the negative effects of partial shading scenarios. These situations can lead to the appearance of multiple peaks in the performance of solar panels. Nevertheless, there are cases where conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques could encounter inaccuracies, causing them to identify the highest power point within a specific area (the local maximum power point; LMPP) instead of the overall highest power point across the entire array (the global maximum power point; GMPP). Numerous methods based on artificial intelligence (AI) were proposed to address this issue; however, they frequently used cumbersome and unreliable methodologies. This research presents the energy-valley-optimizer-based optimization (EVO) technique, which is designed to efficiently and dependably tackle the issue of partial shading (PS) in detecting the maximum power point (MPP) for photovoltaic (PV) systems. The EVO algorithm enhances the speed of tracking and minimizes power output fluctuations during the tracking phase. Through the utilization of the Typhoon hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 402 emulator, extensive validation of the proposed technique is conducted. The effectiveness of the suggested method is compared with the established cuckoo search algorithm for achieving maximum power point tracking (MPPT) within a photovoltaic (PV) system. This comparison takes place under equivalent conditions to ensure a fair performance evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2986
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Oct


  • DC-DC converter
  • energy valley optimizer (EVO)
  • hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)
  • maximum power point tracking (MPPT)
  • partial shading condition (PSC)
  • photovoltaic (PV)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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