Employees' job insecurity perception and unsafe behaviours in human–machine collaboration

Tung Ju Wu, Jia Min Li, Yenchun Jim Wu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aimed to explore the relationship between job insecurity and unsafe behaviour in human–machine collaboration, as well as investigating the mediating roles of emotional exhaustion and moderating roles of psychological detachment. Design/methodology/approach: The authors followed the stressor-detachment model to build our research model. The authors selected manufacturing and service industry employees as samples, and designed three independent studies using the time-lagged method for SPSS and AMOS to test the hypotheses. Findings: The results indicated that emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between the two types of job insecurity and unsafe behaviours among service industry employees, while psychological detachment moderated the effect of qualitative job insecurity on emotional exhaustion. In manufacturing, psychological detachment moderated the effect of quantitative job insecurity on emotional exhaustion, while emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between quantitative job insecurity and unsafe behaviours. Research limitations/implications: The authors enhance understandings of how individual employee characteristics and the work environment jointly influence employees' levels of emotional exhaustion and likelihood of engaging in unsafe behaviours under the stressor-detachment model. Practical implications: The authors suggest an important role of psychological detachment in human–machine collaboration. The authors also that organisations and managers could encourage employees not to check work-related emails on weekends to achieve full detachment. Originality/value: This study contributes to both the stressor-detachment model and job insecurity literature. In addition, it investigates the role of detachment and emotional exhaustion by employees in human–machine collaboration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2409-2432
Number of pages24
JournalManagement Decision
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug 30
Externally publishedYes


  • Emotional exhaustion
  • Employees' unsafe behaviours
  • Human–machine collaboration
  • Job insecurity
  • Psychological detachment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Business,Management and Accounting
  • Management Science and Operations Research


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