Electrolysed-reduced water dialysate improves T-cell damage in end-stage renal disease patients with chronic haemodialysis

Kuo Chin Huang, Shih Ping Hsu, Chih Ching Yang, Pu Ou-Yang, Kun Tai Lee, Shinkatsu Morisawa, Kazumichi Otsubo, Chiang Ting Chien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)


Background. T-cell damage by increased oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD) led to the increased T-cell apoptosis and the alteration of surface markers and Th1/Th2 ratio in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Antioxidant electrolysed-reduced water (ERW) was used as the dialysate in ESRD patients undergoing chronic HD to test for improved oxidative stress-related T-cell apoptosis, alterations of surface markers and intracellular cytokine profile.Methods. We evaluated apoptosis formation by annexin V, CD25-related surface markers, and cytokine ratio of Th1/Th2 in CD4+ T lymphocytes and Tc1/Tc2 in CD8+ T lymphocytes of 42 ESRD patients haemodialysed with ERW for 1 year.Results. In comparison to 12 healthy individuals, the ESRD patients had more T-cell apoptosis and less CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD25/CD69/CD94/CD3+ phenotypes at baseline. Lower intracellular IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in the Th1/CD4+ and Tc1/CD8+ cells and higher intracellular IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the Th2/CD4 + and Tc2/CD8+ cells were also noted in the ESRD patients. After a 1-year ERW treatment, the patients had a decrease in T-cell apoptosis and increases in CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers and CD25/CD69/CD94/CD3+ phenotypes in the T cells. The intracellular IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in the Th1/Tc1 cells significantly (P < 0.05) increased and the intracellular IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the Th2/Tc2 cells decreased. Furthermore, the Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokine ratios were improved toward a normal status.Conclusion. One-year ERW treatment effectively ameliorated T-cell apoptosis, altered CD25-related surface markers and intracellular cytokine profile in the HD patients. Â

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2730-2737
Number of pages8
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug



  • T-lymphocyte
  • apoptosis
  • electrolysed reduced water
  • end-stage renal disease
  • oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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