Effects of the positive Interpersonal and life orientation training (PILOT) program among elementary school students in Taiwan

Wen Chi Wu, Meng Jung Lee, Yuwen Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to investigate the intervention effects of the Positive Interpersonal and Life Orientation Training (PILOT) program on various positive psychological outcomes across two levels of intervention exposure. Most life skill-based intervention programs have been proven to be effective in preventing substance use behaviors and mental illness. However, the effects of these programs on positive psychological competence still needs to be explored. Additionally, the influence of intervention exposure on effectiveness has rarely been considered in most studies. Eight hundred and sixty-eight elementary school students participated in the PILOT program. Analysis of covariance and PROCESS were conducted to investigate the effects of PILOT on the outcome indicators. The results revealed that students exposed to high-level PILOT reported higher levels of resilience, psychological flourishing, substance resistance self-efficacy, cognitive reappraisal, lower levels of depressive symptoms, and internet addiction tendency than students in low-level PILOT in the post-test. The findings indicate that students with a low level of cognitive reappraisal and a high level of depressive symptoms can benefit more from PILOT. The effects of PILOT and their implications in helping students encounter the COVID-19 pandemic in an East Asian context and the influence of fidelity are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107212
JournalChildren and Youth Services Review
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec


  • COVID-19
  • Internet addiction tendency
  • Intervention exposure
  • Life skill training
  • Psychological flourishing
  • Substance resistance self-efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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