Effects of hybrid surfactants on the quality and yield of graphene using a novel electrochemical-mechanical exfoliation process

Zi Ying Chen, Chun Kai Huang, Chii Rong Yang*, Shih Feng Tseng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this study, a novel electrochemical–mechanical exfoliation (EME) process combined with hybrid surfactants was used to prepare graphene nanosheets (GNSs). The effects of hybrid surfactants and post-treatments on the yield and quality of the prepared GNSs were investigated. Before and after the EME process, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were conducted to evaluate the crystallinity, degree of defects, oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio, surface morphology, size, and thickness of graphite powder and the prepared GNSs, respectively. The experimental results revealed that the maximum yield of the GNSs was 19.68% when 1 wt.% polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDDA) and 0.005 wt.% sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (SDSS) were mixed in deionized water for graphite pretreatment and high-speed shear exfoliation and when 1 wt.% PDDA and 0.01 wt.% SDSS were mixed in H2SO4 solution for electrochemical intercalation. The lowest O/C ratio, highest I2D/IG ratio, and lowest ID/IG ratio of the supernatant centrifuged at 3000 rpm were 1.12, 1.085, and 0.274, respectively. The FE-SEM images of the GNSs clearly indicated the effectiveness of exfoliation. Moreover, the average diameter and thickness of the prepared GNSs were approximately 5.2 µm and 2.4 nm, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6809-6817
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr


  • Electrochemical–mechanical exfoliation
  • Graphene nanosheets
  • Hybrid surfactants
  • Oxygen-to-carbon ratio
  • Post-treatments
  • Yield

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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