Effects of diet, physical fitness and hormones on high density lipoprotein (part I: Diet)

L. C. Lyu*, Chun Lai Yi Chun Lai, W. H. Wu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


High density lipoprotein (HDL) plays the central role n reverse cholesterol transport, which with highest density and abundant protein component of the lipoprotein moieties. Nascent HDL accepts unesterified cholesterol from peripheral tissues, esterified the free cholesterol and moves cholesterol ester to the core of HDL, then carries the cholesterol ester to liver for further metabolism. Therefore, HDL decreases the peripheral cholesterol deposition and reduces the risk for developing atherosclerotic diseases. In 1988 and 1993, both versions of the National Cholesterol Education Program in U.S.A. added HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) less than 35 mg/dL as a risk for coronary heart disease along with other risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension. The nutritionists in Taiwan often were asked the questions like 'is it necessary to raise the HDL level? and 'How to raise the HDL level?' by the clients and other medical professionals. The first review of this HDL series will focus on dietary factors on HDL-C concentration. There was a negative correlation between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C. However, fat and cholesterol intakes were positively correlated with HDL-C levels in most epidemiological and clinical studies. The types of fatty acid with various carbon numbers and positions of double bonds affect HDL-C differently. Protein intake was not significantly correlated with HDL- C. The universal agreement is that alcohol consumption is the most significant dietary factor for HDL level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-227
Number of pages13
JournalNutritional Sciences Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1999


  • Alcohol
  • Carbohydrate
  • Cholesterol
  • Diet
  • Fat
  • High density lipoprotein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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