Effects of cognitive style on digital jigsaw puzzle performance: A GridWare analysis

Jon Chao Hong, Ming Yueh Hwang*, Ker Ping Tam, Yi Hsuan Lai, Li Chun Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Cognitive style, a personal characteristic that is a combination of cognitive controls such as field independence (FI) and field dependence (FD), may influence game performance. FI and FD were measured in 210 5th-grade students using a Group Embedded Figures Test. Students assembled digital jigsaw puzzles based on maps of Taiwan and Europe. Using principles of dynamic systems, game performance was analyzed using GridWare, and four types of game strategy were identified. The results showed that cognitive style, based on FI and the number of events, was able to predict digital jigsaw puzzle scores. Digital jigsaw puzzle scoring was positively correlated with FI. FI students achieved significantly higher scores than FD students. Practical implications and limitations were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)920-928
Number of pages9
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012 May


  • Cognitive style
  • Digital jigsaw puzzle
  • Field dependence
  • Field independence
  • Game strategy
  • GridWare

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • General Psychology


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