Effect of a single session of sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback training on the putting performance of professional golfers

Jia Hao Wu, Ting Yu Chueh, Chien Lin Yu, Kuo Pin Wang, Shih Chun Kao, Rodolphe J. Gentili, Bradley D. Hatfield, Tsung Min Hung*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been associated with automaticity and flow in motor execution. Studies have revealed that neurofeedback training (NFT) of the SMR can improve sports performance; however, few studies have adequately explored the effects of a single session of such NFT or examined the possible mechanisms underlying these effects on sports performance. This study recruited 44 professional golfers to address these gaps in the literature. A crossover design was employed to determine the order of the participation in the NFT and no-training control conditions. The participants were asked to perform 60 10-foot putts while electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded before and after the tasks. In pre-and post-tests, visual analog scales were used to assess the psychological states associated with SMR activities including the levels of attention engagement, conscious motor control, and physical relaxation. The results revealed that a single NFT session effectively increased SMR power and improved putting performance compared with the control condition. The subjective assessments also revealed that the participants reported lower attention engagement, less conscious control of the motor details and were more relaxed in the putting task, suggesting that SMR NFT promoted effortless and quiescent mental states during motor preparation for a putting task. This study aligns with theoretical hypotheses and extends current knowledge by revealing that a single session of SMR NFT can effectively enhance SMR power and improve putting performance in professional golfers. It also provides preliminary evidence of the possible underlying mechanisms that drive the effect of SMR NFT on putting performances.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14540
JournalScandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jan


  • EEG
  • neurofeedback training
  • professional golf putting
  • sensorimotor rhythm
  • sports performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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