Increasing attention has been paid to mobile learning studies. However, there is still a dearth of studies investigating the moderating effect of proactive personality on mobile learning achievements. Accordingly, the primary purpose of this study is not only to investigate the key elements that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of mobile learning, but also to examine the moderating role of proactive personality in mobile learning outcomes. The findings indicate that continuance intention will have a positive influence on mobile learning performance, whereas perceived playfulness will have a limited influence on mobile learning outcomes. Moreover, perceived flexibility advantages will positively affect mobile learning continuance intention and perceived playfulness. With respect to the role of perceived usefulness in perceived playfulness, the results indicate that although perceived usefulness has a positive influence on continuance intention, it has a limited impact on perceived playfulness. Finally, the results indicate that proactive personality plays a moderating role in the relationship between perceived playfulness and mobile learning performance, the connection between perceived flexibility advantages and mobile learning continuance intention, the nexus between perceived usefulness and mobile learning continuance intention, as well as the connection between perceived usefulness and playfulness.
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