Does prior concussion lead to biomechanical alterations associated with lateral ankle sprain and anterior cruciate ligament injury? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Tsung Yeh Chou, Yu Lun Huang*, Willie Leung, Cathleen N. Brown, Thomas W. Kaminski, Marc F. Norcross

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective To determine whether individuals with a prior concussion exhibit biomechanical alterations in balance, gait and jump-landing tasks with and without cognitive demands that are associated with risk of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Five electronic databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, SPORTDiscus and CiNAHL) were searched in April 2023. Eligibility criteria Included studies involved (1) concussed participants, (2) outcome measures of spatiotemporal, kinematic or kinetic data and (3) a comparison or the data necessary to compare biomechanical variables between individuals with and without concussion history or before and after a concussion. Results Twenty-seven studies were included involving 1544 participants (concussion group (n=757); non-concussion group (n=787)). Individuals with a recent concussion history (within 2 months) had decreased postural stability (g=0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.49, p<0.001) and slower locomotion-related performance (g=0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41, p<0.001), both of which are associated with LAS injury risk. Furthermore, alterations in frontal plane kinetics (g=0.41, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.79, p=0.033) and sagittal plane kinematics (g=0.30, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.50, p=0.002) were observed in individuals approximately 2 years following concussion, both of which are associated with ACL injury risk. The moderator analyses indicated cognitive demands (ie, working memory, inhibitory control tasks) affected frontal plane kinematics (p=0.009), but not sagittal plane kinematics and locomotion-related performance, between the concussion and non-concussion groups. Conclusion Following a recent concussion, individuals display decreased postural stability and slower locomotion-related performance, both of which are associated with LAS injury risk. Moreover, individuals within 2 years following a concussion also adopt a more erect landing posture with greater knee internal adduction moment, both of which are associated with ACL injury risk. While adding cognitive demands to jump-landing tasks affected frontal plane kinematics during landing, the altered movement patterns in locomotion and sagittal plane kinematics postconcussion persisted regardless of additional cognitive demands. PROSPERO registration number CRD42021248916.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1509-1515
Number of pages7
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume57
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec 1

Keywords

  • athletic injuries
  • biomechanical phenomena
  • brain concussion
  • lower extremity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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