Does a 3D immersive experience enhance Mandarin writing by CSL students?

Yu Ju Lan, Bo Ning Lyu, Chee Kuen Chin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed at enhancing the Mandarin essay writing by learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL) in Singapore by using authentic contexts in Second Life (SL). The participants were students in two classes of eighth graders from a junior high school in Singapore, and the study lasted for 5 weeks. A quasi-experimental design was adopted by randomly assigning the two classes to the experimental group (N=26) or the control group (N = 34). The two groups received identical writing instructions and were asked to write essays about identical topics within an identical time period. The only difference between the two groups was the activities performed at the prewriting stage: with or without immersive exploration in SL. Three kinds of qualitative data were collected and analyzed: students' writing plans, students' compositions, and in-class observation data. The analysis results show that the writing motivation and performance of the CSL students varied depending on whether or not they performed immersive exploration before writing. Those who explored the authentic contexts in SL before writing performed significantly better at constructing a prewriting plan and exhibited significantly higher writing quality compared to those without such an immersive experience. The former group also demonstrated higher motivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-144
Number of pages20
JournalLanguage Learning and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1


  • 3D immersion
  • Chinese as a second language
  • Mandarin writing
  • Second life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Computer Science Applications


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