Determining validity of critical power estimated using a three-minute all-out test in hot environments

Yu Hsuan Kuo, Ching Feng Cheng*, Yu Chi Kuo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heat on the validity of end-test power (EP) derived from a 3-min all-out test (3MT), which is considered as an alternative method for determining the conventional critical power. Twelve male cyclists were required to perform incremen-tal exercise tests (IET) and 3MTs in both high temperature (HT; 35 °C) and thermoneutral temperature (NT; 22 °C) environments. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2, respectively) against the power output (wVO2max, wVT1, and wVT2) were measured during IETs. EP was recorded during the 3MTs. A significant correlation was observed between wVT2 and EP under NT (r = 0.674, p < 0.05) and under HT (r = 0.672, p < 0.05). However, wVO2max, wVT1, wVT2, and EP were significantly higher in NT than in HT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although the physiological stress induced by HT might impair exercise performance, the EP derived from 3MT can validly estimate wVT2 under HT conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9193
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sept 1


  • Critical threshold
  • Exercise intensity
  • Fitness test
  • Heat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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