Design of a 90.9% Locking Range Injection-Locked Frequency Divider with Device Ratio Optimization in 90-nm CMOS

Jen Hao Cheng, Jeng Han Tsai, Tian Wei Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


A 12-32 GHz divide-by-2 (D2) injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) is presented in this paper. First, the device ratio of the injection mixer and cross-coupled pair is optimized to achieve a wide locking range (LR). Then, the inductive peaking and forward-body-bias techniques are applied to the injection mixer to boost its transconductance and to enhance injection efficiency for further extension of the LR. Finally, the harmonic suppression technique is introduced to reduce the output harmonics. Using the aforementioned approaches, we successfully demonstrate a D2 ILFD implemented in the 90-nm low-power CMOS technology with a maximum LR of 90.9% at an injection power of 0 dBm. Even with the injection power as low as-10 dBm, the proposed ILFD maintains an LR of 32.9%. This ILFD consumes 2.4 mW with a supply voltage of 0.6 V in a chip size of 0.45 mm2.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7576682
Pages (from-to)187-197
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan



  • CMOS
  • harmonic
  • inductive peaking
  • injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD)
  • locking range (LR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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