Design and Evaluation of State and Disturbance Observers for a Multivariable Magnetic Levitation System

Yu Sheng Lu*, Peter Berkelman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


For inherently unstable magnetic levitation (maglev) systems, state observation is required for feedback control, and disturbance estimation is needed to compensate for unknown disturbances. Previous designs for simultaneously observing state and disturbance can lead to aggressive disturbance compensation and an unstable levitation. Aiming at these problems, this paper presents a state and disturbance observer that has a cascade structure for a maglev system. The proposed design allows the dynamics of disturbance observation to be separately tuned from those of state observation, avoiding aggressive disturbance compensation and enabling a stable levitation of a maglev system. In this paper, the proposed and previous state and disturbance observers are designed and realized for a maglev system that features wide ranges of translation and rotation motions in five directions. Comparative studies are reported in this paper, and experimental results show feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)420-437
Number of pages18
JournalIETE Journal of Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Luenberger observer
  • Magnetic levitation
  • Multi-degree-of-freedom system
  • Sliding mode
  • State and disturbance estimation
  • State and disturbance observer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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