Deep Learning-Based Recognition of Periodontitis and Dental Caries in Dental X-ray Images

Ivane Delos Santos Chen, Chieh Ming Yang, Mei Juan Chen*, Ming Chin Chen, Ro Min Weng, Chia Hung Yeh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Dental X-ray images are important and useful for dentists to diagnose dental diseases. Utilizing deep learning in dental X-ray images can help dentists quickly and accurately identify common dental diseases such as periodontitis and dental caries. This paper applies image processing and deep learning technologies to dental X-ray images to propose a simultaneous recognition method for periodontitis and dental caries. The single-tooth X-ray image is detected by the YOLOv7 object detection technique and cropped from the periapical X-ray image. Then, it is processed through contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization to enhance the local contrast, and bilateral filtering to eliminate noise while preserving the edge. The deep learning architecture for classification comprises a pre-trained EfficientNet-B0 and fully connected layers that output two labels by the sigmoid activation function for the classification task. The average precision of tooth detection using YOLOv7 is 97.1%. For the recognition of periodontitis, the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 98.67%, and the AUC of the precision-recall (PR) curve is 98.38%. For the recognition of dental caries, the AUC of the ROC curve is 98.31%, and the AUC of the PR curve is 97.55%. Different from the conventional deep learning-based methods for a single disease such as periodontitis or dental caries, the proposed approach can provide the recognition of both periodontitis and dental caries simultaneously. This recognition method presents good performance in the identification of periodontitis and dental caries, thus facilitating dental diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number911
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Aug


  • YOLOv7
  • convolutional neural network
  • deep learning
  • dental X-ray
  • dental caries
  • periodontitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering


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