Cultural Effects on English Language Teachers’ Judgments of Metaphoric Creativity: A Mixed-Methods Approach

Hung Chun Wang*, Yuh Show Cheng, Po Hsi Chen, Shao Zu Su

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study explored cultural influences on English language teachers’ judgments of English metaphors created by Taiwanese learners of English. Based on a mixed-methods approach, it delved into the rating severity and implicit evaluation criteria of two cultural groups of teachers: Taiwanese and Americans. Ten Taiwanese teachers and 10 American teachers evaluated 120 novel metaphoric expressions using the Consensual Assessment Technique (Amabile, 1996). Creativity in context: Update to the social psychology of creativity. They further filled out a creativity evaluation survey, which was designed to bring to light what qualities within the metaphors influenced their judgments of metaphoric creativity. With the teachers’ ratings being analyzed by means of many-facet Rasch measurement, this study first indicated that the American teachers were more severe raters than the Taiwanese teachers, but no significant difference was found between them. Analysis of the evaluation survey further demonstrated that both cultural groups shared largely similar evaluation criteria; yet, two contrasts emerged between them. Specifically, the American teachers seemed to favor metaphors that expressed the creator's thoughts; by contrast, the Taiwanese teachers preferred metaphors that relied on readers’ imagination to work out the meanings. These findings shed light on implications for teaching creativity in English L2 classrooms and assessing learners’ creative language artifacts in an English L2 context.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-82
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Creative Behavior
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar


  • Consensual Assessment Technique
  • cultural effect
  • many-facet Rasch measurement
  • metaphoric creativity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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