Coupled response of the trade wind, SST gradient, and SST in the caribbean sea, and the potential impact on loop current's interannual variability

Y. L. Chang, L. Y. Oey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Air-sea coupling in the IntraAmerican seas (IAS; Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico) is studied through analyses of observational data from satellite, reanalysis products, and in situ measurements.Astrong coupling is found between the easterly trade wind 2U and meridional SST gradient ≥T/≥y across a localized region of the southern-central Caribbean Sea from seasonal and interannual to decadal time scales. The ≥T/≥y anomaly is caused by a variation in the strength of coastal upwelling off the Venezuelan coast by the wind, which in turn strengthens (weakens) for stronger (weaker) ≥T/≥y. Wind speeds and seasonal fluctuations in IAS have increased in the past two decades with a transition near 1994 coinciding approximately with when the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) turned from cold to warm phases. In particular, the seasonal swing from summer's strong to fall's weak trade wind has become larger. The ocean's upper-layer depth has also deepened, by as much as 50% on average in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. These conditions favor the shedding of eddies from the Loop Current, making it more likely to shed at a biannual frequency, as has been observed from altimetry data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1325-1344
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Physical Oceanography
Volume43
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Aug 14

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trade wind
sea surface temperature
atmosphere-ocean coupling
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation
altimetry
upper ocean
in situ measurement
eddy
upwelling
wind velocity
timescale
anomaly
coast
summer
sea
gulf

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography

Cite this

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title = "Coupled response of the trade wind, SST gradient, and SST in the caribbean sea, and the potential impact on loop current's interannual variability",
abstract = "Air-sea coupling in the IntraAmerican seas (IAS; Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico) is studied through analyses of observational data from satellite, reanalysis products, and in situ measurements.Astrong coupling is found between the easterly trade wind 2U and meridional SST gradient ≥T/≥y across a localized region of the southern-central Caribbean Sea from seasonal and interannual to decadal time scales. The ≥T/≥y anomaly is caused by a variation in the strength of coastal upwelling off the Venezuelan coast by the wind, which in turn strengthens (weakens) for stronger (weaker) ≥T/≥y. Wind speeds and seasonal fluctuations in IAS have increased in the past two decades with a transition near 1994 coinciding approximately with when the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) turned from cold to warm phases. In particular, the seasonal swing from summer's strong to fall's weak trade wind has become larger. The ocean's upper-layer depth has also deepened, by as much as 50{\%} on average in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. These conditions favor the shedding of eddies from the Loop Current, making it more likely to shed at a biannual frequency, as has been observed from altimetry data.",
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AU - Oey, L. Y.

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N2 - Air-sea coupling in the IntraAmerican seas (IAS; Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico) is studied through analyses of observational data from satellite, reanalysis products, and in situ measurements.Astrong coupling is found between the easterly trade wind 2U and meridional SST gradient ≥T/≥y across a localized region of the southern-central Caribbean Sea from seasonal and interannual to decadal time scales. The ≥T/≥y anomaly is caused by a variation in the strength of coastal upwelling off the Venezuelan coast by the wind, which in turn strengthens (weakens) for stronger (weaker) ≥T/≥y. Wind speeds and seasonal fluctuations in IAS have increased in the past two decades with a transition near 1994 coinciding approximately with when the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) turned from cold to warm phases. In particular, the seasonal swing from summer's strong to fall's weak trade wind has become larger. The ocean's upper-layer depth has also deepened, by as much as 50% on average in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. These conditions favor the shedding of eddies from the Loop Current, making it more likely to shed at a biannual frequency, as has been observed from altimetry data.

AB - Air-sea coupling in the IntraAmerican seas (IAS; Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico) is studied through analyses of observational data from satellite, reanalysis products, and in situ measurements.Astrong coupling is found between the easterly trade wind 2U and meridional SST gradient ≥T/≥y across a localized region of the southern-central Caribbean Sea from seasonal and interannual to decadal time scales. The ≥T/≥y anomaly is caused by a variation in the strength of coastal upwelling off the Venezuelan coast by the wind, which in turn strengthens (weakens) for stronger (weaker) ≥T/≥y. Wind speeds and seasonal fluctuations in IAS have increased in the past two decades with a transition near 1994 coinciding approximately with when the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) turned from cold to warm phases. In particular, the seasonal swing from summer's strong to fall's weak trade wind has become larger. The ocean's upper-layer depth has also deepened, by as much as 50% on average in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. These conditions favor the shedding of eddies from the Loop Current, making it more likely to shed at a biannual frequency, as has been observed from altimetry data.

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