Parkinson’s disease (PD) is featured mainly by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of α-synuclein-containing aggregates in the substantia nigra of brain. The α-synuclein fibrils and aggregates lead to increased oxidative stress and neural toxicity in PD. Chronic inflammation mediated by microglia is one of the hallmarks of PD pathophysiology. In this report, we showed that coumarin-chalcone hybrid LM-021 and indole derivative NC009-1 reduced the expression of major histocompatibility complex-II, NLR family pyrin domain containing (NLRP) 3, caspase-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in α-synuclein-activated mouse BV-2 microglia. Release of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α was also mitigated. In BE(2)-M17 cells expressing A53T α-synuclein aggregates, LM-021 and NC009-1 reduced α-synuclein aggregation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and promoted neurite outgrowth. These protective effects were mediated by downregulating NLRP1, IL-1β and IL-6, and their downstream pathways including nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα)/NF-κB P65 subunit (P65), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (P38)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1, and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3. The study results indicate LM-021 and NC009-1 as potential new drug candidates for PD.
- IL-1β/IL-6 signaling
- Parkinson’s disease/α-synuclein
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology