Comparing the effects of olfactory-based sensory stimulation and board game training on cognition, emotion, and blood biomarkers among individuals with dementia: A pilot randomized controlled trial

Li Jung Lin, Kuan Yi Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Olfactory dysfunction can indicate early cognitive decline and is associated with dementia symptoms. We developed an olfactory-based sensory stimulation program and investigated its effects on cognition and emotion, and board game training were used as a comparison. In this parallel design pilot study, 30 participants with mild to moderate dementia were equal randomly assigned to the control (CONT), olfactory stimulation with cognitive training (OS), and board game (BG) groups. Two participants were withdrawn from CONT and OS groups, respectively. The intervention was a 12-week program with one 30-min session twice a week. We employed a blood-based biomarker technique and several cognitive and psychological tests to measure basal and after-intervention values. No significant differences were observed between the groups after intervention, as measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), Top International Biotech Smell Identification Test, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The results showed that the OS group had a lower plasma Tau level than the other groups following intervention, whereas the CONT group had a significantly increased plasma amyloid ß1-42 level. OS participants had a lower concentration ratio of plasma Tau and amyloid Aß1-42 and showed more stable or improved cognition, olfactory function, and mood state. Both the OS and BG groups had a higher percentage of participants with stable or improved cognition and emotion. Taken together, these results suggest that olfactory-based sensory stimulation can be a beneficial intervention for patients with dementia. Clinical trial registration: [Clinicaltrials.gov], identifier [NCT05168098].

Original languageEnglish
Article number1003325
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept 20

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Tau
  • board game
  • cognition
  • depression
  • immunomagnetic reduction
  • multisensory stimulation
  • olfactory dysfunction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology

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